Role of MAP kinase in the immune response

MAP kinases , which include three families : the ERK , JNK and p38 , are intracellular signaling pathways by which signals can be received from the biological response of the receptor and a cell, and their activity determines the proper functioning of the immune system. MAP kinases are involved in the activation of the innate defense mechanisms involved in the cytokine production under the influence of signals from TLR receptors , and effector pathways are at the same time , which enable the cell response to cytokines.


Activation of innate, antigen-unspecific effector immunological mechanisms in mammals pro- ceeds on different levels of molecular phenomena in an infected cell. One of such an important, although only partly recognized processes which take part in the elimination of infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria is autophagy. The process is activated through the above mentioned infectious agents, autophagic vacuoles sequester bacteria, and viruses delivering them to lysosomal degradation.


Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthases, is a small, diffusible, highly reactive molecule with dichotomous regulatory roles under physiological and pathological con- ditions. Apoptosis plays an important role in the development of the organism but also under various pathological conditions. NO can exert both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects, depending on the conditions and cell type.

Suppression of apoptosis in virus infections chordopoks

Viruses , including poxvirus , are known to possess efficient mechanisms allowing them to escape from the immune system of the infected host. One such mechanism is the possibility of inducing or suppressive effects of viruses on programmed cell death ( apoptosis ) . In this paper, the characteristics of the different ways of suppression of apoptosis by gene products of some chordopokswirusów ( orthopoxvirus , Leporipoxvirus and molluscipokswirusów ) . For proteins that are involved in the suppression of apoptosis by caspase inhibitors include poxvirus ?

The Editorial Board
Andrzej Łukaszyk - przewodniczący, Zofia Bielańska-Osuchowska, Szczepan Biliński, Mieczysław Chorąży, Aleksander Koj, Włodzimierz Korochoda, Leszek Kuźnicki, Aleksandra Stojałowska, Lech Wojtczak

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