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Apoptosis in adult organism plays a role in removing of unnecessary, damaged or potentially dangerous cells. Apoptosis inducing factors include DNA damaging factors, such as oxidative stress or partial ischemia. Physical exercise may lead to disturbance and damage in many organs, especially in untrained organisms. It has been demonstrated that an intense exercise could finally lead to apoptosis in skeletal muscles, however apoptotic changes were restricted to single myonuclei. The reason is probably related to the presence of hundreds myonuclei in single myofiber, therefore the damage of single myonuc- lei is not important in overall metabolism and function of the entire myofiber. In contrast to the skeletal muscle, exercise-induced apoptosis in the kidney displayed characteristic morphological features of clas- sical apoptotic cell death, and was confined to the distal tubules and collecting ducts. The mechanism in which post-exercise apoptosis is activated seems to be complex and may involve oxidative stress occur- ring not only in skeletal muscles but also in many distant organs. The oxidative stress during exercise might be a result of considerable increase in oxygen utilization in working skeletal muscles or of ischemia– reperfusion phenomenon, which could occur especially in not working organs, such as kidney. Moreover, the kidney apoptosis could be induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors, AT1 and AT2, which expres- sion increased in response to the activation of renin-angiotensin system during intense exercise. However, the moderate, regular exercise training is known to improve the physiological and functional capacity of many organs what finally may lead to prevention of a number of disorders. The moderate adaptive training was demonstrated to reduce post-exercise damage, including apoptosis in skeletal muscles as well as in kidney. In trained individuals may develop adaptive mechanisms. In working skeletal muscles increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutases (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) while in kidney progressively decreased the Ang II releasing, followed by decreased expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors. The moderate, increasing activity regular training is associated with beneficial changes in metabolic functions of many organs.
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The Editorial Board
Andrzej Łukaszyk - przewodniczący, Zofia Bielańska-Osuchowska, Szczepan Biliński, Mieczysław Chorąży, Aleksander Koj, Włodzimierz Korochoda, Leszek Kuźnicki, Aleksandra Stojałowska, Lech Wojtczak

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