Protein P53 - the guardian of the genome in viral infection

P53 is a multifunctional protein with a molecular weight of 53 kDa that is activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses . It contributes to the cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and to induce apoptosis is involved in the regulation of gene transcription in the process of cell differentiation and angiogenesis , and its best-known function, repair of DNA damage . Necessary in situations of cellular stress , which might jeopardize the integrity of the genome , known as the " guardian of the genome " .


Supernumerary, old or damaged cells of multicellular organisms are eliminated by apoptosis – programmed cell death. Apoptosis is accompanied by series of characteristic morphological and biochemi- cal events. The cell activates a cascade of cysteine proteases – caspases, that digest target proteins. Nucleases are also activated, which together leads to irreversible cell damage within few hours. Mitochon- dria are the cell compartment that integrates signals from different apoptotic pathways activated by ischemia, heat shock or growth hormones depletion.

Human papillomavirus and the process of apoptosis

The importance of the effect of infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) , and the processes of carcinogenesis, apoptosis has been the subject of many studies , but is still little understood. The study aims to present the current knowledge of the impact of HPV infection on selected aspects of the processes of life and death of cells. Apoptosis is a complex process which leads to cell death , wherein the protein plays an important role of BCL - 2 family , as well as the cell cycle regulatory proteins include P53 and pRB .

Apoptosis and tumors

General characteristics of apoptosis and mechanisms leading to activation of caspases and endonucleases, the main executors of apoptosis is described. The crucial role in these processes of mitochondria and the proteins released from them procaspase 9, cytochrom c and AIF factor is also shown. Information is also presented about membrane receptors, their ligands as well as various regulatory proteins, those from BCL-2/BAX and IAPs families included. It is pointed out that changes in the level of expression and/or properties of regulatory proteins characterize various tumor cells.

The Editorial Board
Andrzej Łukaszyk - przewodniczący, Zofia Bielańska-Osuchowska, Szczepan Biliński, Mieczysław Chorąży, Aleksander Koj, Włodzimierz Korochoda, Leszek Kuźnicki, Aleksandra Stojałowska, Lech Wojtczak

Editorial address:
Katedra i Zakład Histologii i Embriologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Poznaniu, ul. Święcickiego 6, 60-781 Poznań, tel. +48 61 8546453, fax. +48 61 8546440, email:

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